- Thais Carrança – @tcarran
- From BBC Information Brazil in Sao Paulo
Between 2015 and 2020, Brazil misplaced at the very least 764 public libraries, in accordance with information from the Nationwide System of Public Libraries (SNBP), managed by the Particular Secretariat for Tradition of the Ministry of Tourism.
In 2015, the database included 6,057 public libraries in Brazil, a quantity down to five,293 in 2020, the most recent information obtainable on the SNBP web site.
For library specialists, the decline within the variety of libraries reveals a disregard for public energy in direction of essentially the most weak inhabitants who don’t have entry to bookstores.
In addition they warn that the variety of closed libraries may very well be even increased because of the present fragility of the Nationwide System of Public Libraries following the extinction of the Ministry of Tradition and the dearth of efficient oversight by the state methods whose information feeds the nationwide system.
Public libraries are these operated by the municipality, state, federal district, or federal authorities that serve all audiences. They’re thought-about cultural establishments and subsequently fall throughout the remit of federal public coverage – beforehand on the Ministry of Schooling and at present, with the lapse of its portfolio, on the Particular Secretariat for Tradition.
This account doesn’t embrace college and college libraries that concentrate on college students, academics, and academic workers.
Requested by BBC Information Brasil, the Tourism Ministry’s Particular Secretariat for Tradition didn’t reply to a query explaining the closure of lots of of public libraries in recent times, or what the Jair Bolsonaro (PL) authorities’s coverage on libraries is.
The lack of greater than 700 libraries in recent times retains the nation farther from that aim.
SP and MG had been those who closed a lot of the libraries
Of the 764 public libraries that closed in 5 years, 698 (or 91% of the entire) had been within the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, most of them metropolis libraries.
In response to SNBP, São Paulo had 842 public libraries in 2015, a quantity that fell to 304 in 2020, with a lack of 538 models in 5 years. The quantity corresponds to 70% of all closed libraries within the nation throughout this era.
SP Leituras, the social group at present liable for managing the State System of Public Libraries of São Paulo (SisEB), confirmed that the numbers registered within the nationwide system are appropriate and had been offered by SisEB, though it’s believed that this the case may very well be information intermediaries and never the regulatory suggestions made on the finish of the yr.
In response to the group, a part of the decline within the variety of libraries might be defined by the pandemic, which has led to the non permanent or everlasting closure of a number of models.
When requested concerning the causes for the closures since 2015, earlier than the pandemic, SP Readings despatched the query to the São Paulo State Minister of Tradition and Artistic Industries.
“It’s tough to find out the rationale for the fluctuations (or decreases) within the variety of establishments. We all know that many libraries have sadly closed yr after yr, however we can not say with absolute certainty that these are the definitive numbers “, replied the folder. , by electronic mail.
Minas Gerais, in flip, had 888 public libraries in 2015, a quantity that fell to 728 in 2020, a lack of 160 libraries in 5 years, in accordance with SNBP information.
When requested to touch upon the decline within the variety of libraries, the Minas Gerais State Ministry of Tradition and Tourism replied that “The federal government of Minas is liable for the info of the state register and in Minas Gerais for the variety of public libraries registered at this time the State Public Libraries [12/7] are 752 items of apparatus”.
In response to the prospectus, the replace takes place each 4 years and the brand new registration ought to happen in December 2022. “Different registrations are the accountability of the entities that generate them and it’s as much as native authorities to take part or not in them,” the secretary added.
The closure of libraries between 2015 and 2020 within the nation reversed the pattern of earlier years.
From 2004 to 2011, when the federal authorities’s Open Ebook Program ran in partnership with municipalities, 1,705 new libraries had been created and 682 modernized in Brazil, in accordance with data on the SNBP web site.
Yr after yr, BBC Information Brasil requested the SNBP for the historic sequence of the Register of Public Libraries Working in Brazil, however obtained no response.
Fábio Cordeiro, President of the Federal Library Council (CFB), believes that the closure of libraries in Brazil in recent times might be defined by quite a lot of components.
“Libraries are cultural establishments, and in current occasions we have had the abolition of the Ministry of Tradition and a scarcity of appreciation for these establishments,” says Cordeiro. “The closure of public libraries exhibits a scarcity of funding and authorities curiosity.”
He additionally cites a disregard for the low-income inhabitants, which is extra depending on libraries.
“There’s a lack of insurance policies focusing on essentially the most weak a part of the inhabitants, those that do not have entry to bookstores, who do not have the earnings to purchase books so have quick access to ebook.”
Ebook gross sales in Brazil are declining yr after yr. In 2013, the best-performing yr for the nationwide ebook market previously decade, publisher-to-bookstore gross sales totaled 279.7 million copies, in accordance with a Nielsen BookData report for the Brazilian Ebook Chamber (CBL) and the Nationwide Editors survey performed Union of Books (Snel).
Final yr, 191 million books had been offered, down 1% from the 193 million books offered in 2020 and down 32% from the 2013 peak.
Additionally in 2021, the common month-to-month earnings of Brazilians fell to R$1,353, the bottom since 2012, in accordance with IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics).
Additionally in accordance with IBGE, the proportion of Brazilian municipalities with public libraries has dropped from 97.7% in 2014 to 87.7% in 2018, in accordance with the newest version of the Municipal Primary Info Survey (Munich), which included this matter. The proportion elevated yr after yr till 2014, when it began falling.
Cordeiro additionally cites the development of latest applied sciences as an element that has decreased the variety of libraries.
In response to the Instituto Pró-Livro’s Studying Portraits research, in 2019 68% of Brazilians mentioned they’d by no means gone to libraries.
However unit closures additionally look like affecting this, as this yr 45% of respondents mentioned there isn’t any public library of their city or neighborhood, up from the 20% who gave the identical reply in 2007.
Adriana Ferrari, Technical Director of the Florestan Fernandes Library of the School of Philosophy, Humanities and Humanities on the College of São Paulo (FFLCH-USP) and Vice President of the Brazilian Federation of Librarians’ Associations (Febab), notes that it is a weak spot of the info offered by the SNBP as there isn’t any efficient data assortment.
At present, in accordance with the SNBP, the gathering is performed in partnership with the state and regional public library methods.
“Some states have more practical management over their authorities methods, others extra fragile management. So this bigger decline within the Southeast area may very well be because of the high quality of information assortment,” he says.
“I do not really feel secure assuming it was simply these  Libraries which were closed. I consider that this quantity may very well be even increased as a result of for years we’ve got been witnessing the scrapping of the whole system of entry to data, studying, tradition and libraries ourselves,” says Ferrari.
The librarian notes that the Nationwide Tradition Plan was by no means carried out. And even after the adoption of the Nationwide Coverage on Studying and Writing (PNLE), often called the Castilho Legislation (Legislation 13.696/18), sanctioned by Michel Temer (MDB), the target of “generalizing the best of entry to books studying, Writing, Literature and Libraries” made no progress.
“We do not have public coverage, we do not have a Ministry of Tradition, which is the division that manages the Nationwide System of Public Libraries. So the system exists, however with an especially fragile construction. That is why we’ve not superior, we’re going backwards,” he says.
“The library isn’t just a spot for books and studying, it’s a door of infinite prospects, for the opening of cultural repertoires. They’re locations of encounter, of belonging, so that they transcend collections,” says Ferrari, who promotes the strengthening von defends public motion to reverse this backlash state of affairs.
In the course of the Ebook Biennale held in São Paulo this July, CFB launched the #SouBibliotecaEscolar marketing campaign, which seeks to adjust to Legislation no. Personal faculties throughout the nation can have libraries with a minimal assortment of 1 title per enrolled scholar.
The deadline to adjust to the legislation expired in 2020 with out the goal being met.
Febab will quickly launch a platform with the intention of mapping all libraries of every kind (public, college, college and neighborhood) within the nation. The thought is to have the ability to monitor authorities methods and assist them have extra constant information on these public entities.
Have you ever already watched our new movies? youtube? Subscribe to our channel!